Enforcement of team rules дотримання правил
De-emphasis робити акцент на чомусь
Focused on концентруватись
Leads to привести до чогось
Involvement участь, втягнення
Transition перехід до чогось, розвиток
Conflict arises from differences. When individuals come together in work teams their differences in terms of power, values and attitudes, and social factors all contribute to the creation of conflict. It is often difficult to expose the sources of conflict. Conflict can arise from numerous sources within a team setting and generally falls into three categories: communication factors, structural factors and personal factors. Barriers to communication are among the most important factors and can be a major source of misunderstanding. Communication barriers include poor listening skills; insufficient sharing of information; Structural disagreements include the size of the organization, turnover rate, levels of participation, reward systems, and levels of interdependence among employees. Personal factors include things such as an individual's self-esteem, their personal goals, values and needs. Conflict can lead to new ideas and approaches to organizational processes, and increased interest in dealing with problems.
Handling Negative Conflict
1. Direct Approach: This may be the best approach of all. It concentrates on the leader confronting the issue. Though conflict is uncomfortable to deal with, it is best to look at issues objectively and to face them as they are.
2. Bargaining: This is an excellent technique when both parties have ideas on a solution yet cannot find common ground. Often a third party, such as a team leader, is needed to help find the compromise. Compromise involves give and take on both sides, however, and usually ends up with both walking away equally dissatisfied.
3. Enforcement of Team Rules: Avoid using this method if possible, it can bring about hard feelings toward the leader and the team. This technique is only used when it is obvious that a member does not want to be a team player and refuses to work with the rest.
4. De-emphasis: This is a form of bargaining where the emphasis is on the areas of agreement. When parties realize that there are areas where they are in agreement, they can often begin to move in a new direction.
Many people will occasionally encounter situations at work that can be difficult to resolve. Some of this situations might include:
- problem with your supervisor;
- problems with your co-worker;
- feeling that you are being harassed;
- learning that you have disabling condition;
- feeling like you are not being treated fairly;
- wanting to learn how to improve your workplace interactions.
Often we try to solve the problem on our own. When we have success, we feel good about being able to manage our own problems effectively. Sometimes, however, even with our best efforts, we are not successful. At these time, you may want to contact to the leadership.
Evaluate yourself for how well you listened at the end of any nversation. Effectively managing conflict allows teams to stay focused on their goals.
Constructive conflict management leads to a broader understanding of the problem, healthy expression of different ideas or alternatives, and creates excitement from the positive interaction and involvement which will help the team through periods of transition and on to greater levels of performance.
Exercise 1. Give for the English:
розкрити, комунікативний фактор, джерело, конструктивний фактор, недостатня поширення інформації, особистий фактор, інтенсивність круговороту, протистояння, дотримання правил команди, взаємодія, привести до чогось, зосереджуватись.
Exercise 2. Match words from list A with words from list B that have a similar meaning:
sharing raise a question
emphasis transfer from
focus on stress
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What do conflicts arise from?
2. What conflict factors do you know?
3. Give description of communication, structural and personal factors.
4. What are the ways to handle with conflicts and which of it (them) is best of all to your mind?
5. What kind of problem do you know and its resolving?
6. Can problems fall into conflict? At what situations?
7. Have conflicts got any advantages to your mind?
8. Propose your own strategy resolving conflicts and problems.
Unit 12. The main characteristics of the true leader
1. In large organizations, leaders should spend no more than four hours a day in their offices. The rest of the time, they should be out with their people, talking to lower-level employees and getting their feedback on problem areas. They should be making short speeches and handing out awards.
2. The best leaders are those whose minds are never closed and who are eager to deal with new issues. Leaders should not change their minds too frequently after a major decision has been made, but if they never reconsider, they are beginning to show a degree of rigidity and inflexibility that creates problems for the organization.
3. Executives must take a disciplined approach to their schedules, their post, their telephone calls, their travel schedules and their meetings. Staying busy and working long hours are not necessarily a measurement of leadership effectiveness.
4. Leaders may run efficient organizations, but they do not really serve the long-term interests of the institution unless they plan, set goals and provide strategic perception.
5. The leader must be willing to pass on skills, to share insights and experiences, and to work very closely with people to help them mature and be creative.
6. Leaders should let people know that life is not so important that you can'tsit back occasionally and be amused by what is happening. Laughter can be a great reliever of tension.
7. Reliability is something that leaders must have in order to provide stability and strength to organizations. Leaders must be willing to be flexible but consistency and coherence are important elements of large organizations.
8. Leaders must not only understand the major elements of their businesses but must also keep up with any changes.
9. Leaders should be able to look at themselves objectively and analyze where they have made mistakes and where they have disappointed people.
Exercise 1. Give for the English:
твердість, сприйняття, відпочивати, послідовність, управляти, давати не задумуючись, хотіти, розважатись, дотримуватись, полегшувати.
Exercise 2. Match words from list A with words from list B that have similar meaning:
hand out relax
sit back consistency
coherence give without hesitation
run stick to
keep up hardness
to be eager realization
Exercise 3. Do you agree or disagree with the statements below?
1) a leader should be a good teacher and communicator;
2) a leader must manage time and use it effectively;
3) a leader must have technical competence;
4) a leader must provide vision;
5) a leader must be visible and approachable;
6) a leader should be introspective;
7) a leader should be dependable;
8) a leader should be open-minded;
9) a leader should have a sense of humour.
Exercise 4. Answer the following questions, work in pairs:
1. How do you see a real leader and what qualities should he/she have?
2. Do you agree with advice in the text? Which of them are acceptable for you?
3. Do you consider yourself a leader? What necessary qualities do you have in
your personality for being a leader?
4.What characteristics are the most important for the leader to your mind?
Unit 13. Business trip
Due time розклад
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