MODERNISM (Joyce, Wolf, Lawrence)

MODERNISM (Joyce, Wolf, Lawrence)

The flourishing ofmodernism dates back to the 20 - 30ss of the 20 century.

1) Unlike realists who viewed human characters as social types , predetermined by the environment, modernists saw the cause of human actions in man's subconscious or subliminal sphere.

2) Concentrated on man's inner world, thoughts and feelings. Special technique known as. "a stream of consciousness".

3) Their works abounded in historical, literary, mythological and other kinds of allusions

1Virginia Wolf Novelist and critic, a member of the Bloomsbury Group. Tries to experiment in almost all novels. Her text is a game, she plays with the reader.

Mrs Dalloway ,To the Lighthouse ,Orlando -identity is never fixed. We never know what we are.

2James Joyce-Irish novelist. Established “ stream of consciousness” as a valid way of writing fiction.

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, a novel which is largely autobiographical, about a boy growing up in Dublin, prioritizes art. His view of life is grim. He doesn’t have any illusions. The person is flesh and bone with few ideas.

3Lawrence.His manner of writing is more traditional in comparison with that of Joyce’s and Woolf’s. His novel ‘Sons and Lovers’ can be considered a talented illustration of the Oedipus complex. His other novel deals with sex and love(The white Peacock, Lady Chatterley’s Lover). He showed the eternal desire to love and to be loved, the relation to be sexes as a constant struggle

 

3. REALISM IN THE BRITISH POST-WAR 2 (Greene, Snow)

WW II changed the ideological life of Britain greatly! Post-war Britain faced heavy financial losses, growing dependence from the USA, the cold war and the atomic threat. Such circumstances led to the rapid intensification of the cultural and moral crisis, particularly of the intellectuals, and caused their disillusionment.
1Graham Greenewas a very prolific writer, novelist, short - story writer, playwright, publicist. He himself divided his novels into two groups:

1) "serious novels" -"The Quiet American"

2)"entertaining novels"

One of the most important features of Greene's works is the extremely wide geography of his novels.

The idea of moral choice and moral involvement brings Greene close to existentialism.

2Charles Persey Snow one of the most outstanding realist writers of the 20th century England. Literary fame came to him when he started publishing a series of 11 novels under the general title of Strangers and Brothers which took him around 25 years to finish. The most important novels are: The light and the dark, Time of hope. His last novel Last Things of the series was finished in 1970. The title of the series is symbolic: ppl are “strangers” if they are alone, isolated from the environment

4. LOST GENERATION (Hemingway, Fitzgerald)

In the period after World War I there appeared both in Great Britain and in the USA a group of writers who were called "the lost generation" These writers as well as their personages had all passed through the horrors of the war .

Having faced the reality of the war, the soldiers -writers lost their pre - war ideals and illusions. Many of the characters in the books of "the lost generation" lost their lives or returned crippled from the trenches (фронт), either physically or morally, spiritually or both. In the 30s the situation changed drastically because of the Great Depression .The living standards dropped very low. There was a rise of proletariat movement in America. 1)Ernest Hemingway , born in Oak Park, started his career as a writer in a newspaper office in Kansas City. After the United States entered the First World War, he joined a volunteer ambulance unit in the Italian army. During the twenties, Hemingway became a member of the group of expatriate Americans in Paris, which he described in his first important work, The Sun Also Rises (1926). Equally successful was A Farewell to Arms (1929), the study of an American ambulance officer's disillusionment in the war and his role as a deserter.

2. Francis Scott Fitzgerald was an American author of novels and short stories,

He finished four novels: This Side of Paradise, The Beautiful and Damned,The Great Gatsby (his most famous), and Tender Is the Night

 

5.REALISM OF THE 20TH CENTURY (Galsworthy, Greene)

It was peculiar with the influence of modernism and psychologism. However, it was characterized by its attention to details. It tried to reproduce the most detail and objective life of Great Britain before and after World Wars. Realism represented the social life and paid much attention to domestic problems. Its representatives showed tragic vision of life using satire and dark humour, but still their vision of life is much more optimistic than the modernistic one. Narrative form used by realists is characterized by several narrative characters in order to create an objective vision of life.

1)The events that influence development of realism are the following: World War 1, Russian Revolution, Strike 1928, Marxist Ideology

The social and social-psychological novel , family chronicle or epic cycle (J. Galsworthy)John 1Galsworthycame from the upper middle class and it was this class ( bourgeoisie) and their life that constituted the theme of his novels. His trilogies are often autobiographical.



Graham Greene

Graham Greene was a very prolific writer, novelist, short - story writer, playwright, publicist. He himself divided his novels into two groups:

1) "serious novels" -"The Quiet American"

2)"entertaining novels"

One of the most important features of Greene's works is the extremely wide geography of his novels.

The idea of moral choice and moral involvement brings Greene close to existentialism.

 

PHILOSOPHICAL NOVEL (Golding, Murdock)

1 It was another phenomenon of the 1950 - 60ss in English literature. It was called so, because the writers of this time dealt with various life situations from a purely philosophical point of view.

2) These writers were influenced by the philosophy of human existence) which was based on subjective idealism

3 Existentialism looks at the world as absurd, uncognizable and chaotic. Human life is purposeless, for its final end is death. Man is a lonely, (alien to all the others), living in fear. The concept of "free choice" is one of the key ones of the existential philosophy.

Symbolism and allegory The characters are rather archetypes than social or psychological types. Archetypes take their roots in mythology.

1W. Golding. His war experience made him think about the nature of man and the future of mankind. He thinks the evil is in man’s nature. “Lord of the Flies”.2Dame Iris Murdoch was an Irish-born British author and philosopher, best known for her novels about good and evil, sexual relationships, morality, and the power of the unconscious. Her novels, in their attention and generosity to the inner lives of individuals, follow the tradition of novelists like Dostoevsky, Tolstoy besides showing an abiding love of Shakespeare

7.REALISM IN AMERICAN LITERATURE (Twain, London,Dreiser, Salinger)(1860 - World War I)

The Civil War in the USA cardinally changed the history of the country. Before the war American literature was marked with optimism & idealism . The writers should deal with everyday realities.

The characters of realistic novels were typical people of their time & place. Writers stressed the link between man and society that is influence of society on the formation of human character. « American Dream»: poor boy gets rich-myth.

1Mark Twain. The 1-st period of his literary work (50-60s) was based on folklore-popular stories, fairytales, legends, The 2-ond period-novels of the Old Times ( « The Adventures of Tom Sawyer»; “ The Adventures of Huck Finn»( a picaresque novel). The 3-rd period: satirical attitude towards reality.

2Jack London.Collection of stories “ The Son of the Wolf», different short stories.

MODERNISM (Faulkner)

The flourishing of modernism dates back to the 20 - 30ss of the 20 century.

Naturally the name of the trend comes of the word "modern" - something new and fresh. It differs from realism in many basic ways:

MODERNISM (Joyce, Wolf, Lawrence)

The flourishing ofmodernism dates back to the 20 - 30ss of the 20 century.

1) Unlike realists who viewed human characters as social types , predetermined by the environment, modernists saw the cause of human actions in man's subconscious or subliminal sphere.

2) Concentrated on man's inner world, thoughts and feelings. Special technique known as. "a stream of consciousness".

3) Their works abounded in historical, literary, mythological and other kinds of allusions

1Virginia Wolf Novelist and critic, a member of the Bloomsbury Group. Tries to experiment in almost all novels. Her text is a game, she plays with the reader.

Mrs Dalloway ,To the Lighthouse ,Orlando -identity is never fixed. We never know what we are.

2James Joyce-Irish novelist. Established “ stream of consciousness” as a valid way of writing fiction.

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, a novel which is largely autobiographical, about a boy growing up in Dublin, prioritizes art. His view of life is grim. He doesn’t have any illusions. The person is flesh and bone with few ideas.

3Lawrence.His manner of writing is more traditional in comparison with that of Joyce’s and Woolf’s. His novel ‘Sons and Lovers’ can be considered a talented illustration of the Oedipus complex. His other novel deals with sex and love(The white Peacock, Lady Chatterley’s Lover). He showed the eternal desire to love and to be loved, the relation to be sexes as a constant struggle

 

3. REALISM IN THE BRITISH POST-WAR 2 (Greene, Snow)

WW II changed the ideological life of Britain greatly! Post-war Britain faced heavy financial losses, growing dependence from the USA, the cold war and the atomic threat. Such circumstances led to the rapid intensification of the cultural and moral crisis, particularly of the intellectuals, and caused their disillusionment.
1Graham Greenewas a very prolific writer, novelist, short - story writer, playwright, publicist. He himself divided his novels into two groups:

1) "serious novels" -"The Quiet American"

2)"entertaining novels"

One of the most important features of Greene's works is the extremely wide geography of his novels.

The idea of moral choice and moral involvement brings Greene close to existentialism.

2Charles Persey Snow one of the most outstanding realist writers of the 20th century England. Literary fame came to him when he started publishing a series of 11 novels under the general title of Strangers and Brothers which took him around 25 years to finish. The most important novels are: The light and the dark, Time of hope. His last novel Last Things of the series was finished in 1970. The title of the series is symbolic: ppl are “strangers” if they are alone, isolated from the environment

4. LOST GENERATION (Hemingway, Fitzgerald)

In the period after World War I there appeared both in Great Britain and in the USA a group of writers who were called "the lost generation" These writers as well as their personages had all passed through the horrors of the war .

Having faced the reality of the war, the soldiers -writers lost their pre - war ideals and illusions. Many of the characters in the books of "the lost generation" lost their lives or returned crippled from the trenches (фронт), either physically or morally, spiritually or both. In the 30s the situation changed drastically because of the Great Depression .The living standards dropped very low. There was a rise of proletariat movement in America. 1)Ernest Hemingway , born in Oak Park, started his career as a writer in a newspaper office in Kansas City. After the United States entered the First World War, he joined a volunteer ambulance unit in the Italian army. During the twenties, Hemingway became a member of the group of expatriate Americans in Paris, which he described in his first important work, The Sun Also Rises (1926). Equally successful was A Farewell to Arms (1929), the study of an American ambulance officer's disillusionment in the war and his role as a deserter.

2. Francis Scott Fitzgerald was an American author of novels and short stories,

He finished four novels: This Side of Paradise, The Beautiful and Damned,The Great Gatsby (his most famous), and Tender Is the Night

 

5.REALISM OF THE 20TH CENTURY (Galsworthy, Greene)

It was peculiar with the influence of modernism and psychologism. However, it was characterized by its attention to details. It tried to reproduce the most detail and objective life of Great Britain before and after World Wars. Realism represented the social life and paid much attention to domestic problems. Its representatives showed tragic vision of life using satire and dark humour, but still their vision of life is much more optimistic than the modernistic one. Narrative form used by realists is characterized by several narrative characters in order to create an objective vision of life.

1)The events that influence development of realism are the following: World War 1, Russian Revolution, Strike 1928, Marxist Ideology

The social and social-psychological novel , family chronicle or epic cycle (J. Galsworthy)John 1Galsworthycame from the upper middle class and it was this class ( bourgeoisie) and their life that constituted the theme of his novels. His trilogies are often autobiographical.

Graham Greene

Graham Greene was a very prolific writer, novelist, short - story writer, playwright, publicist. He himself divided his novels into two groups:

1) "serious novels" -"The Quiet American"

2)"entertaining novels"

One of the most important features of Greene's works is the extremely wide geography of his novels.

The idea of moral choice and moral involvement brings Greene close to existentialism.

 









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