Pollution and the envirinment
People are more worried about the environment (the air, water, and land around us) as a result of the harmful effects of human activity. Some of these activities cause pollution (dirty air, land or water) and some are destroying the environment. Here are some of the problems:
1) the ozone layer: a layer of gases which stop harmful radiation from the sun reaching the earth; recent researches show that there is now a hole in parts of the ozone layers;
2) global warming: an increase in world temperature caused by an increase in carbon dioxide;
3) acid rain: rain that contains dangerous chemicals; this is caused by smoke from factories.
Because of these problems, there are many groups of people whose aim is conservation (the protection of natural things, e.g. plants and animals). They are often referred to as greens, e.g. ‘Greenpeace’ and ‘Friends of the Earth’.
Common causes of damage are smoke from factories, car exhaust fumes, dumping (throwing away) industrial waste in seas and rivers, aerosol cans (usually called sprays), cutting down tropical rainforests (e.g. the Amazon) which increases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
If we want to look after the environment, there are certain things we should do. We should recycle paper, bottles and clothes; save, keep and protect tropical rainforests; plant more trees; save water and energy.
1) Why are people worried about the environment?
2) What is pollution?
3) What are the major environmental problems?
4) What causes damage to the environment?
5) What is conservation?
6) What should we do to protect the environment?
Задание 2. Прочитайте тексты и ответьте на вопросы.
The Greenhouse effect
Pollution from cars, factories, and power stations is causing harmful greenhouse gases to build up in the Earth’s atmosphere. These gases prevent heat from escaping, and as a result our planet is getting warmer. This process is known as global warming.
Global warming is causing the ice at the North and South Poles to melt and sea levels and sea temperatures to rise, leading to serious flooding and violent storms in many parts of the world. In other places, there will be less rain and the land will be turned into desert.
Pollution from cars
The biggest polluter today is the car. Exhaust fumes are the main cause of poor air quality, which can make people feel ill and have difficulty in breathing. This problem is especially bad in cities, where the number of cars is increasing every year, causing serious congestion and filling the air with smog.
Governments try to improve the situation by encouraging people to use their cars less or buy cars that do not use as much fuel.
The destruction of animal habitats
All over the world, wildlife habitats are being destroyed. There are many endangered species that could soon become extinct. Rainforests are being cut down so that people can grow crops and feed the world’s increasing population. Modern farming methods, for example using pesticides and genetically modified crops, are having a very bad effect on the food chain. Killing insects may be useful for growing crops, but it reduces the amount of available food for other animals and birds.
Climate change is also making conditions difficult for some animals. In the Arctic, the ice is melting, threatening the survival of animals such as polar bears.
Alternative sources of energy
Burning fossil fuels to produce energy causes a lot of pollution. Renewable sources of energy such as wind power, wave power, and solar power are much cleaner. People can also easily reduce the amount of energy they use. A lot of electricity is wasted by leaving on lights, televisions, and other electrical equipment when they are not being used.
Our society produces huge amounts of waste, which end up having to be burned, buried, or taken out to sea. This waste produces greenhouse gases, and also spoils the environment. If we recycle material such as glass, paper, and metal, this will reduce the amount of waste that is produced.
Environmentally-friendly forms of transport
If more people used public transport, this would reduce the amount of pollution. Public transport is much more environmentally-friendly, because buses and trains can carry large numbers of people at the same time, whereas cars often carry only one person. Car pools are another way of reducing the number of cars on our roads. The big car companies are also working on developing new engine technology, so that cars can run on cleaner fuels such as hydrogen instead of petrol. For shorter journeys cycling is a much healthier alternative to driving a car, and many towns have introduced special cycle lanes.
We can also help the environment by choosing to buy green products, for example organic foods that are produced without using pesticides. Not only are pesticides bad for the environment, the chemicals in them can also be harmful to humans. If we buy wood from sustainable sources, this will mean that our forests can be maintained for future generations.
So much of modern life is based around shopping and buying new things. Everything is out-of-date in only a few years or even months. If we stopped buying and throwing away so many things, this would help ease the pressure on the environment.
1) What is happening to our environment?
2) What is the “greenhouse effect”?
3) Why are cars harmful to the environment?
4) How are animal habitats destroyed?
5) What are the alternative sources of energy?
6) What can be done to make transport more environmentally-friendly? 7) How can we help the environment?
TEMA 12. WORK AND CAREER
Задание 1. Изучите возможные ответы на вопросы, связанные с работой, и опишите работу кого-либо из своих знакомых.
People may ask you about your job. They can ask you and you can answer in different ways:
What do you do? I’m a banker/an engineer/a teacher
What’s your job? I work in a bank/marketing
What do you do for a living? I work for Union Bank/Fiat
What do you do in your job? I’m in charge of all deliveries out of the factory.
I have to deal with any complaints.
I run the coffee bar and restaurant in the museum.
What are your daily duties? I go to a lot of meetings.
I visit/see/meet clients.
I advise clients.
Working hours For many people in Britain these are 8.30-9.00 a.m. to 5.00- 5.30 p.m. So people often talk about a nine-to-five job. Some people have flexi-time (they can start and hour or so earlier or finish later); and some have to do shiftwork (working at different times). Some people also work overtime (work extra hours).
Задание 2. Составьте 10 вопросов к тексту.
The career ladder
AGetting a job
When Paul left school he applied for a job in the accounts department of a local engineering company. They gave him a job as a trainee (a very junior person in a company). He didn’t earn very much but they gave him a lot of training (organised help and advice with learning the job), and sent him on training courses.
Paul worked hard at the company and his prospects looked good. After his first year he got good pay rise, and after two years he was promoted. After six years he was in charge of (responsible for / the boss of) the accounts department with five other employees under him.
C Leaving the company
By the time Paul was 30, however, he decided he wanted a fresh challenge (a new exciting situation). He was keen to work abroad, so he resigned from his company and started looking for a new job with a bigger company. After a couple of months he managed to find a job with an international company which involved a lot of foreign travel. He was very excited about the new job and at first he really enjoyed the travelling, but…
After about six months, Paul started to dislike the constant moving around, and after a year he hated it; he hated living in hotels, and he never really made any friends in the new company. Unfortunately his work was not satisfactory either and finally he was sacked a year later.
After that, Paul found things much more difficult. He was unemployed (out of work / without the job) for over a year. He had to sell his car and move out of his new house. Things were looking bad and in the end Paul had to accept a part-time job (working only some of the day or some of the week) on a fruit and vegetable stall in a market.
To his surprise, Paul loved the market. He made lots of friends and enjoyed working out in the open air. After two years, he took over (took control of) the stall. Two years later he opened a second stall, and after ten years he had fifteen stalls. Last year Paul retired at the age of 55, a very rich man.
Задание 3. Изучите следующие правила поведения на работе и составьте рассказ о правилах поведения в университете.
1. Work begins at 8.30 everyday, so you have to be here on time every morning.
2. Please turn off your mobile phone, because you can’t make personal calls inside the building.
3. The company has a no smoking policy, so you have to go outside for a cigarette.
4. Everybody has a personal code for the photocopier, so you have to get one before you use it.
5. It’s very important to ask your boss for permission to go home early, so you can’t leave early without asking her.
6. Mrs. Clark is the only person who can use the fax machine, so you can’t use it without her permission.
7. Everybody wears informal clothes here, so you don’t have to wear a suit.
8. The company restaurant is open all day, so you can get something to eat without leaving the building.
9. The coffee machine is free, so you don’t have to pay for hot drinks.
10. There are lots of restaurants and sandwich bars near the office so you don’t have to eat in the company restaurant.
11. Everybody has one hour for lunch, so you have to be back in the office by 2 o’clock.
TEMA 12. How to organize your resume
Задание 1. Прочитайте рекомендации по написанию своей краткой биографии и ответьте на вопросы.
A resume or a C.V. (curriculum vitae) is a summary of your history and professional qualifications. Make sure your resume (C.V.) focuses on the kind of work you can and want to do.
If you have worked successfully in an area related to the job you are applying for, emphasize it. It sometimes happens that the most qualified people don’t always get the job. It goes to the person who presents himself well in person and on paper.
Here is how you should organize your resume:
1. Your name and address go at the top. The resume usually consists of the following sections: Personal, Education, Work, Experince, Interests and Skills, Hobbies.
2. Under Personal you say:
1) when an where you were born;
2) your marital status (whether you are married, single or divorced), your children;
3. Under Education you describe:
1) the school you finished and the years of study (for example, 1956-1966);
2) University, the diplomas and degrees obtained, also mention the subject (e.g. the University of St. Petersburg, Economics);
3) any higher degrees, e.g. Ph.D., and the university which granted it.
4. Then comes Work Experience:
You always list the jobs, the years you worked, the positions you held and the addresses.
This should be presented in the reverse chronological order starting from the last job.
In case you have no work experience in the field, mention your summer jobs, extracurricular school activities, awards. Choose the activities that will enhance your qualification for the job you want.
5. Then come Interests and Skills:
Include the foreign languages you speak, computer skills, extensive travel, particular interests or professional membership, the clubs you belong to. This is your chance to let your future employer get some idea of your person.
6. The last is Hobbies:
It is a good to mention here a hobby that can help get the job you are after.
It should be noted that a resume (C.V.) can be structured differently and may vary in length from one page to three or more.
Send your Resume, along with a Cover Letter and a Letter of Recommendation or Reference to a specific person. The person should appeal to your reader’s own needs. Briefly explain why you are approaching his company. Refer him to your Resume and ask for an interview.
1) In what cases do people have to write a resume?
2) Should the resume you write be a detailed personal history or a summary of your personal history and qualifications?
3) When you write a resume you usually emphasize that you have worked successfully in an area related to the job you want to get. Why is it important do you think?
4) How is a resume structured?
5) What do you begin with?
6) What do you write under Personal, Education, Work Experience, Interests and Skills and Hobbies?
7) Why is it important to present oneself properly in a resume?
8) Do you usually present all the information about yourself in the chronological order?
9) Why do you think it is recommendable to present the information in the reverse chronological order?
10) How important is it to mention your computer skills and your command of foreign languages?
Задание 2. Прочитайте образцы писем и составьте аналогичные.
30 June, 2008
Dear Mr Jones,
I am writing to apply for the job (position) of accountant advertised in yesterday’s “Daily Telegrath”. I enclose my Resume and a Letter of Recommendation from Mr J.Smith of Smith and Sponsor Bank, Manchester.
I have recently moved to your town for family reasons and feel that my qualification would enable me to be a productive member of your company. I am available for an interview at your convenience.
References on request.
I look forward to hearing from you,
LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION
15 July, 2008
Dear Dr Jones,
Having known Dr Crown for five years as a staff-member of my department, I am pleased to write this Letter of Recommendation for him.
During the five years that Dr Crown worked with us he always excelled in whatever activity he undertook.
It is important to mention here that he has a good command of French and German and speaks both languages fluently. I also want to emphasize his experience in computing (his computer skills).
Dr Crown has my fullest support and should it be appropriate I would be pleased to provide further information.
TEMA 12. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
Задание 1.Прочитайте диалог, обращая внимание на то, как заключаются договоренности. Найдите в словаре значение следующих слов и словосочетаний: set up a meeting, discuss a proposal, make a date, confirm, pencil in a time and date, firm up. Выучите диалог.
– Shall we set up a meeting to discuss the proposal?
– That’s a good idea.
– Can we make a date for some time around the beginning of September?
– That sounds okay, but I don’t know exactly what I’m doing over the next few weeks so I can’t confirm it now.
– That’s no problem. Let’s pencil in a time and date, and I’ll call you two days before so that we can firm it up.
Задание 2. Прочитайте электронные письма. Посмотрите в словаре значение слов: attach, log on, save, click, delete, undo, e-mail, forward, call up, wipe, print. Вспомните, были ли у вас аналогичные проблемы. Расскажите о них, используя лексику мини-текстов.
1. Hi, John,
I found the report that you attached to your e-mail when I logged on to my computer this morning. I thought the report was great. I wanted to keep it, so I tried to save it to my hard disk. Unfortunately, I clicked on the wrong button and I deleted it instead! I tried to undo the command, but that didn’t work. So I searched for it, but it just wasn’t there. Could you send it again?
2. Dear Rita,
I’m pleased you liked the report – but I’m afraid it wasn’t mine. Caroline wrote it and e-mailed it to me. I forwarded it to you because I thought you’d be interested. However, there’s some bad news. When I tried to call it up just now I found that it had been wiped from my computer too – it was gone! But don’t worry – I printed a copy before that happened so I’ll post it to you.
Задание 3.Прочитайте факс и придумайте продолжение.
To: Anna Green
From: Sonia O’Neil
I hope this fax comes through successfully. I’ve had a terrible time trying to get it to you. My fax machine was dialing and redialing your number for about three hours yesterday afternoon, before I decided that I’d had enough and cancelled it. What was the problem? Perhaps your machine had run out of paper? Or maybe you just hadn’t put the paper in properly – you really should read the instructions about how to load it. But let’s get down to business…
Задание 4. Прочитайте следующие телефонные разговоры и выучите их. Составьте аналогичные телефонные разговоры. Если вы не поняли или не расслышали, что говорит собеседник, используйте следующие фразы: “Sorry, I didn’t quite catch that” или “I’m sorry” или “Sorry, I don’t understand”.
– May I speak to Mr. Bown, please?
– Good morning, Mr. Brown. This is Mr. Green Speaking.
– Good morning Mr. Green.
– Could I speak to Mr. Grey, please?
– Who is calling, please?
– This is Mr. Brown from the Lloyd Bank.
– I’m putting you through.
– Hello! David Black speaking. May I have a word with Mr. White, please?
– I’ll see if he is in… I’m afraid, Mr. White is out at the moment.
– Could you take a message?
– Yes, of course.
– Good morning. Mr. Robert’s office.
– Good morning. May I speak to Mr. Robert?
– Sorry, sir. Mr. Robert is not available. Is there any message?
– No, thank you. I’ll call back later.
– Right, good bye.
– Hello! Mr. Brown’s office. What can I do for you?
– Can you connect me to Mr. Brown, please?
– Who is calling?
– This is Mr. Frost.
– Just a minute. I’ll see if he is in the office. Putting you through. Go ahead, please.
– Thank you.
– This is Mr. Brown speaking. I’d like to make an appointment with Mr. Brill.
– Oh, yes, Mr. Brown. Good morning. I’ll get his schedule. Are you there?
– When would you like to come?
– Tomorrow, if possible.
– I’m afraid he’ll not be in. Is it urgent?
– No, it isn’t urgent. Is the day after tomorrow possible?
– What time would you like to come?
– As late as possible in the afternoon.
– I’m sorry, that afternoon is full too.
– How is the Friday afternoon at 5?
– Yes, that’s perfect, thank you. Good bye.
Задание 4. Прочитайте информацию об оформлении делового письма и изучите образец, обращая внимание на разбивку (layout) и его части.
Business letter writing is very important for normal business activity. Business letters are usually written on printed company forms. The heading (заголовок) gives the name of the company, the postal and telegraphic addresses, the telephone number(s), the number of the telex(es), and telefaxes.
The ordinary business letter comprises the following principle parts:
1. The Date. (дата)
2. The Inside Address. (внутренний адрес)
3. The Opening Salutation. (вступительное обращение)
4. The Subject Heading. (заголовок текста)
5. The Opening Paragraph. (первый абзац)
6. The Body of the Letter. (тест письма)
7. The Closing Paragraph. (заключительный абзац)
8. The Complimentary Closing. (заключительные формы вежливости)
9. The Signature. (подпись)
10. Inclosures, Postscripts, and copies sent. (отметка о наличии приложений, постскриптумов и копий)
6123 Farrington Road
Dear Human Resources Director:
I just read an article in the News and Observer about Taylor's new computer center just north of Durham. I would like to apply for a position as an entry-level programmer at the center.
I understand that Taylor produces both in-house and customer documentation. My technical writing skills, as described in the enclosed resume, are well suited to your company. I am a recent graduate of DeVry Institute of Technology in Atlanta with an Associate's Degree in Computer Science. In addition to having taken a broad range of courses, I served as a computer consultant at the college's computer center where I helped train users to work with new systems.
I will be happy to meet with you at your convenience and discuss how my education and experience match your needs. You can reach me at my home address, at (919) 233-1552, or at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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