Relate the problem statement of research and its stages. Расскажите о постановке проблемы исследования и ее этапах.

Scientific research is not possible without setting a scientific problem. The problem - this is a complex theoretical or practical issue that requires study permit; this problem to be investigated. Consequently, the problem - is that it is not known that arose during the development of science and the needs of society.
Problems do not occur in a vacuum, they always grow from the results obtained previously. Any problem has two inseparable elements: the objective knowledge that is not yet known, and the assumption of the possibility of obtaining new laws or fundamentally new way of practical application of previously acquired knowledge. It is expected that this new knowledge society needs.
There are three stages in the formulation of the problem: the search for, the actual production and deployment problems.
Troubleshooting. Many scientific and technical problems lie, as they say, on the surface, without the need for search. They enter the social order, is required to find ways and find new means to resolve the contradiction. For example, the problem of creating a "clean" engine, do not pollute the air environment. Most often the problem is not such a distinct and obvious, in particular the problem of creating a vehicle on an air cushion, which arose in connection with the need to improve cross-car and move away from such an ancient mover, like a wheel. This major scientific and technical problems. In the structure they have a lot of small problems, which may also be the subject of scientific research. Often the problem arises from "reverse" when the practice gives results opposite or drastically different from those which were expected.
Formulation of the problem. As you know, the right to put the problem, ie. E. To articulate the goal to define the boundaries of research and, accordingly, to establish research facilities, - it is not easy and, most importantly, a very individual for each case. However, there are four general "rules" of the problem.
1. Strict limitation known from new. For the formulation of the problem need to be familiar with the latest achievements of science and technology in this field in order to properly assess the novelty of the detected inconsistencies and does not pose the problem, which has already been solved.
2. Localization (limit) of the unknown. Should clearly limit the scope of the new real extent possible, identify the subject of the case study, as the area of the unknown is limitless and can not cover it with one or a group of research.
3. Identification of possible conditions for the solution. It is necessary to clarify the type of problem: scientific-theoretical or practical, special or comprehensive, universal or private; define a common methodology for the study, which is largely dependent on the type of problem, and to establish the extent of the accuracy of measurements and assessments.
4. The presence of uncertainty or variance - provides for replacement during the deployment, and to address the previously selected methods, techniques, tricks, new, improved, or more appropriate to address the problem or unsatisfactory with new formulations, as well as replacing the previously selected private relations, defined as needed for research, new and more fully meet the objectives of the study.
Unknown region in the formulation problems (the first two "rules") shall be limited and localized, and therefore should be carried out strictly third "rule" requiring that the problem was laid more uncertainty, because the resolution of any problems - it's an invasion of the region, full of surprises for which there may be no studies of already known methods and ratings.
Deployment problems. Solution of scientific and technical or scientific problem should not be considered as a single act. Solving the problem often coincides with the deployment, that is, with the emergence and formulation of additional questions, which are grouped around a central issue - the hub for any problem.
The decision further questions allows the researcher to data and facts necessary to find an answer to the main question of the problem. Additional issues to a certain extent, identify with the term "aspect of the problem," ie. E. To the study of the object of study in the new communication, new objects, or equate to review old studying an object in relation to the new conditions.
The central question of the scientific problem - a kind of node to which are attached various aspects of the problem. In some cases, they can be treated as separate research topics, some aspects of the problem, and sometimes as separate problems. One problem may develop into another, these problems can be updated with new issues as a result of the main aspects of the problem cropped up in this, to a large extent, and it is deployed. Figuratively speaking, that researchers "did not reinvent the wheel", it needs to know what has been done and at what level, which is necessary to study literature and other available sources of information.

23. Consider the features of determining of the goals and objectives of the study. Рассмотрите особенности определения целей и задач исследования.

The major steps in conducting research are:Identification of research problem,Literature review,Specifying the purpose of research,Determine specific research questions,Specification of a Conceptual framework - Usually a set of hypotheses,Choice of a methodology (for data collection)

Data collection,Analyzing and interpreting the data,Reporting and evaluating research,Communicating the research findings and, possibly, recommendations

Most researches begin with a general statement of the problem, or rather, the purpose for engaging in the study. Preparatory stage includes: choice of topic ; justification for the research on it , the definition of hypotheses , goals and objectives of the research , development plan or program of research , preparation of research tools ( instruments ) .Initially formulated research topic and justify the reasons for its development . by means of preliminary acquaintance with literature and materials of previous studies it turns out, the extent to which issues and what are the themes studied the results. Particular attention should be paid to issues for which answers exist or are inadequate The planning of scientific research

1) the formulation of the problem or the theme of the scientific research,

2) the definition of the object and the subject of the study,

3) the definition of aims and tasks of the researches,

4) the interpretation of the basic concepts,

5) the formulation of the working hypotheses.

The object of study is social phenomenon or process, which consists a contradiction and creates problem situation. The object of study answers the question: what is considered?

The subject of the study is the most significant a property, a party, a feature of the object that should be studied. For example, if the theme of research is devoted to the formation mechanism of monetary regulation the object of study are the processes of transformation of the system of monetary regulation under certain conditions, and the subject is the mechanism of monetary regulation of the economy.



24. Relate the planning of scientific research. Расскажите о планировании научного исследования.

Planning research work is essential for its efficient organization.

Research organizations and educational institutions develop a work plan for the year based on the target complex programs, long-term scientific and technical programs, business contracts and applications for research submitted by customers.

The scientific work of the departments of educational institutions organized and conducted in accordance with the work plans for the academic year.

Professors, lecturers and graduate students carry out research work on individual plans.

Planned and scientific-research work of students.

Work plans of educational institutions and departments may contain the relevant sections of SRWS. According to the plans work student scientific circles and problem groups.

In research and educational institutions on the topics of research work makes work programs and schedules their execution.

In the preparation of monographs, textbooks, manuals and lectures, plans, prospects of these works.

Plans are intelligence, analytical (descriptive) and experimental.

Reconnaissance plan applies if the object and subject of study no clear ideas and to push hard working hypothesis.

The purpose of such a plan - Update topics (problems) and the formulation of hypotheses.

Usually it is used when there is no literature on the subject or eeochen little.

Descriptive plan is used when you can select an object and subject of study and formulate a descriptive hypothesis.

The purpose of the plan - to test this hypothesis, describe the facts characterizing the object of study.

The experimental plan includes conducting social (legal) experiment. It is used when formulated scientific problem and an explanatory hypothesis.

The purpose of the plan - definition of causality in the investigated object. In the procedural part of the program The choice of research methods, these methods show a link with the goals, objectives and hypotheses of the study.



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